An epidemiological approach to understanding the rise of health care costs may identify tactics helpful in controlling it. Other sections of this website address public health and the design of health care insurance. Here are some specific sectors worth exploring

Office-based procedures. A number of medical practices are adding tests and services that exceed the training and certification of the professionals. Examples include, Endovenous Laser Vein Therapy, Botox Therapy, Collagen Injections, Carotid Doppler, Doppler Plethysmography, and many others. In the absence of formal training, the performance and interpretation of these procedures may be sub-standard and should not be reimbursed.

 Low value Medical Services have been identified as a source of wasteful spending. The American Board of Internal Medicine has worked in collaboration with a large number of specialty societies to identify such procedures and have posted information for physicians and patients on their website; Choosing Wisely. Clinicians who order these procedures routinely should be audited more closely.

For Profit Hospitals: Can for-profit hospitals serve the interests of the community? Are not-for profit hospitals becoming more like profit hospitals? Here is the latest round in the discussion. Some useful background is here.